Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Reefs Design, Material and Concepts of Realization around the Globe. Headed by: dr. A. Goldschmid. Author: Maricela Yip. Salzburg, Nov 22 nd 1998. A quick description of Natural Reefs (1997 - The International Year of the Reef) A natural Reef can be characterized as an elevated hard surface on which sedentary or encrusting animals live, such as.